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Because the testicles are so sensitive, even a small injury can cause lasting pain or discomfort. However, the pain may originate outside the testicle, including the coiled tube and tissue behind it (the epididymis), the groin or the abdomen. Kidney stones and hernias can cause testicle pain, for example.
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Testicular pain may result from surgery, an injury or a medical condition such as an infection. Among medical conditions:
Since the cause of the pain varies widely, so can the symptoms.
In cases of bacterial orchitis, symptoms may include:
In cases of testicular cancer, the primary symptom is a hard lump or enlargement in either testicle. In cases where there are other health conditions, such as kidney stones, pain persists for more than one week.
Men who experience ongoing pain, swelling or a hard lump in the testicles or groin should see a physician.
A physician will perform a complete physical exam and may take blood, urine and semen samples for testing.
A doctor might provide specific tests, medications or other instructions. If not, over-the-counter pain relievers can alleviate mild testicular pain. Also, an athletic supporter or folded towel can provide relief by elevating the scrotum while standing or lying down.
If cancer is present, a treatment plan will be determined based on the patient’s condition and the stage of the disease.